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Pests and Pollinators. Soil erosion controls on biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. The Influence of Soils on Human Health. Use and Impact of Bt Maize. Aquaculture: Challenges and Promise.
Soil Carbon Storage. Soil Minerals and Plant Nutrition. Soil Water Dynamics. The Conservation of Cultivated Plants. The Soil Biota. Transgenic Animals in Agriculture. Soil carbon storage is a vital ecosystem service, resulting from interactions of ecological processes. Human activities affecting these processes can lead to carbon loss or improved storage. Aa Aa Aa. References and Recommended Reading.
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High Carbon Dioxide Boosts Plant Respiration, Potentially Affecting Climate And Crops
Creature Cast. Simply Science. Green Screen. The soils that have been mapped are Canisteo silty clay loam [fine loamy, mixed calcareous , mesic Typic Haplaquoll], Clarion loam fine loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Hapludoll , Harps loam fine loamy, mesic Typic Calciaquoll , Nicollet loam fine loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Hapludoll , and Okoboji mucky silt loam fine, montmorillonitic, mesic Cumulic Haplaquoll Soil Conservation Service Soil CO 2 fluxes were measured in six fields within the Walnut Creek watershed during the period of 25 June—3 July In each field a stratified sampling scheme was employed, whereby three replicate locations of each of the three general landscape elements were identified summit, side slope, and depression , resulting in nine locations per field.
At each landscape position within each field soil CO 2 flux, soil temperature surface and 5 cm , and soil water content surface, 6 cm was measured at three separate locations located approximately 1 m apart. Soil samples were also collected for laboratory analysis of soil microbial biomass, respiration, pH, organic C, and soil texture described in section 2d , below.
Soil CO 2 fluxes were measured using vented chambers 27 cm diameter placed on the soil surface between plant rows for 3 min. A polyethylene skirt that was attached to the outside of the chambers extended in a concentric ring approximately 30 cm out from the chamber wall and was held on the soil with a length of chain to seal the chambers at the soil surface Denmead Carbon dioxide fluxes were calculated by performing linear regression on the CO 2 concentration versus time data or by the nonlinear procedure of Hutchinson and Mosier Each site was sampled only once during the 9-day period.
To estimate daily soil respiration from these point-in-time measurements, the 5-cm soil temperature values were used, along with the average daily 5-cm soil temperature in a mathematical algorithm relating temperature and soil CO 2 flux [Eq. For these corrections, a Q 10 factor of 1.
Intensive temporal sampling of soil CO 2 flux was conducted in a single cornfield within the watershed field WC On day of year DOY 5-day prior to the sampling period , six automated chambers were placed in this field at three different landscape elements—two chambers each at a summit, side-slope, and depression location. Soil respiration was measured using automated chambers similar to the design of Parkin and Kaspar Chambers were placed in the interrow areas. The top of each steel box was fit with a wooden framework that supported a sliding cover.
The covers were supported by casters riding on steel tracks attached to the sides of the chambers. Linear actuators driven by gear motors attached to the frames served to open and close the covers at hourly intervals. Soil respiration was measured every hour by sliding the cover over the chamber top to allow CO 2 to accumulate in the chamber headspace. After 6 min the chamber lids were withdrawn and the chambers were left open to the atmosphere for the succeeding 54 m.
Respiration and crop productivity - Jeffrey S. Amthor - Google книги
To account for the nonlinear buildup of headspace CO 2 concentrations within the chambers, we calculated respiration rates using the algorithm of Hutchinson and Mosier Each chamber was instrumented with thermocouples to measure air temperature, surface soil temperature, and soil temperature at 5 cm.
The average difference between air temperature measured outside the chambers at a height of 1. We do not know to what extent this difference was a spatial effect temperatures taken at different heights above the soil surface ; however, average air temperature increases within the chamber during the 6 min that they were closed averaged only 0. The small increases in chamber air temperature were likely results of the fact that the chambers were shaded in the corn canopy. Soil moisture probes, placed in the chambers, were used to measure soil water content 0—6 cm , and a small fan was placed in each chamber to recirculate air during the respiration measurements.
Fifteen eddy covariance towers were spatially distributed across the Walnut Creek watershed, representing multiple soil types and landscape position for both corn- and soybean production fields Kustas et al. Two of these towers were in field WC15, where the automated soil CO 2 flux chambers were installed. The EC instruments were mounted on m towers at 3 m above the ground surface. Soil thermocouples Cu-Co, type T were placed 0. Surface soil 0—6 cm was sampled at each respiration site.
In the laboratory, samples were weighed and sieved 2 mm. Subsamples of the field moist soil were collected for water content and soil microbial biomass, and the remaining soil was air dried. Soil microbial biomass C was measured by fumigation and direct extraction with 0. The pH was measured in distilled water:soil slurries. Soil texture analyses were performed by Midwest Laboratories, Inc.